Many methods are being used to kill and remove spores from milk and whey. Spores are particularly difficult to get rid of, being robust and some resistant to pasteurization, UV and gamma radiation, freezing, dessication, and treatment with chemical compounds. However, these approaches downgrade the quality of the product considerably, consume energy, and affect the environment negatively.
An effective and environmentally friendly way to reduce the number of bacteria and spores drastically is the use of ceramic microfiltration, which ensures up to log 6 reduction. The bacteria and spores are removed from the product stream, along with bacterial enzymes and somatic cells.