Cheese can be salted in two ways. The first way is brining, where the cheese is submerged in a concentrated salt brine where it absorbs salt from the brine. The second way of salting is dry salting, where the dry salt is added directly onto the cheese curds for absorption.
Cheese is salted for two primary reasons. The first reason for salting cheese is to slow down or stop the bacteria process of converting lactose to lactic acid. Most of the lactose is removed during the brine process. If the cheese was not salted, the residual moisture contains enough lactose to produce more acid than is ideal for a proper curd ripening. The second reason for salting cheese is for the cheese flavor. Additionally, for rind cheeses, salting of the cheese will pull moisture from the surface and begin forming the rind of the cheese, which also tend to inhibit growth of many molds.